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Cardiac-eu.org

Checklist for User Interfaces and Interface Transmission Technologies to Assistive Devices

No significant benefits No significant benefits
Minor benefits Minor benefits
Major benefits Major benefits
User Groups
Visual
Hearing
Physical
Cognitive
Ageing
           
Displays          
Text size should be configurable
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Text colour and background colour ahould be configurable
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Provision should be made to permit a Braille display or screen reader to be fitted
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Publicly accessible equipment should offer alternative display modalities
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The text and background colour combination should have high contrast
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
A clear open typeface, should be used for text
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Text should not be placed over a background image or over a patterned background
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
White or yellow type on black or a dark colour is more legible, provided that the typeface (font), weight and size are suitable. Small type and very bold type tend to blur for some people, reducing legibility
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Avoid shades of blue, green and violet for conveying information
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Speech output of instructions, as an addition to (and not a replacement for), on-screen instructions, is recommended
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
There should be no noticeable flicker on the screen
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Products should be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Use no more than five colours when coding information
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Adhere to existing colour conventions e.g. red for stop
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Structure the visual display layout so that the user can predict where to find required information and how to use it
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
           
Touchscreens          
The text and background colour combination is of high contrast
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Use of blue, green and violet is kept to a minimum
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
There is no noticeable flicker on the screen
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
The structure of the visual display allows the user to predict where to find information and how to use it
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Touch sensitive areas or keys are between 20 - 22mm across*
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
For mobile devices with touchscreens targets are 9.2 - 9.6mm across**
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
There is a high contrast between touch areas, text and background colour
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Text or controls are not placed over a background image or a patterned background
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
White or yellow type on a black or dark colour background is used
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
Controls are labelled in a large high contrast font
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
           
Audio Output          
Inductive coupling facilities should be made available in public terminals and on fixed telephones
No benefits visual
Minor benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Provision should be made to permit a device, such as a flashing light ringer, to be connected
No significant benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Standard 3.5mm connectors should be used
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The user must be able to increase the volume of the audio signal (preferably to at least 90 dB SPL)
No significant benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Provide text versions of audio prompts that are synchronised with the audio so that the timing is the same
No significant benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Signals from the basic system, such as alarms, warnings, status lamps and error messages are available in alternative forms
No significant benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The volume can be reset to a default level
No significant benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Warnings and similar alert messages must remain stable for a sufficiently long time to be discovered by the user
Major benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Major benefits ageing
           
Icons / Graphics          
Symbols should create the illusion of manipulatable objects, e.g., it should be clear that they can be selected, how to select them and be obvious when they are selected
No significant benefits visual
Minor benefits hearing
Minor benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Graphical symbols should be constructed with not more than 2 or 3 components
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Symbols should always be presented upright
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The symbol stands out from the background
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Ensure that each icon is distinct from, and clearly visible within, a surrounding group of symbols
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Try to make each symbol as distinct from the others as possible
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Symbols should be designed according to a grid, or a basic pattern
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Angles smaller than 30° as well as filled areas are avoided
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
           
Keyboards / Keypads          
All commands and options can be accessed by using the keyboard
Major benefits visual
Minor benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The keyboard should be detachable and have a sufficiently long cable, so it can be placed according to user's needs
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The keyboard is of low-profile type, i.e. the height of the key-row beginning A-S should not be greater than 30mm
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
There is good friction between the keyboard and the desktop
Minor benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The key tops are matt
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The surface of the keytops is concave
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The user receives tactile and audible feedback when pressing a key
Major benefits visual
Major benefits hearing
Minor benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Groups of keys are separated by distinct spaces
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Groups of keys are distinguished by different colours
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
Minor benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The F, J and 5 keys are marked with a tactile identification
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Frequently used keys, such as Enter, Shift, Escape, Ctrl, Backspace etc. have a shape that differs from other keys
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
There is high contrast between the colour of the character and the background of the keytop
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The height of the characters is not less than 4mm
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The text on the keys should be printed in sans-serif font
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Text is not printed in red or green
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
No significant benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The user can customise the keyboard with respect to features such as repeat rate, key activation delay, delay between acceptance of two consecutive key presses, minimum time for pressing a key before the key repeat begins, and serial instead of multiple simultaneous keystrokes etc.
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
If key repeat is supported, the delay before repeat should be adjustable to at least 2 seconds per character
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
If sufficient space is available, shift keys (upper and lower case, ctrl, alt etc.) should be duplicated, one on each side of the keyboard, and be placed symmetrically
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The system allows the connection of two keyboards, which could be used simultaneously
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
Major benefits cognitive
No significant benefits ageing
The power to press a key should be between 0.3 and 0.6 Newton***
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
           
Pointing devices          
The user can execute pointing functions from the keyboard
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The user can modify cursor speed, distance and double-click interval
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
Operation of a pointing device does not require two simultaneous hand movements
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing
The power needed to operate a pointing device should be between 0.3 and 0.6 Newton***
Major benefits visual
No significant benefits hearing
Major benefits physical
No significant benefits cognitive
Minor benefits ageing

*According to Namahn (2000), touch sensitive areas or keys, for users with no impairments, should be of a "minimal size: 22mm across". However, Colle & Hiszem (2004) recommend that a "key size no smaller than 20mm...should be used if sufficient space is available". See Touchscreens guideline for references.

**According to Parhi, Karlson and Bederson (2006), for one-handed thumb use of mobile handheld devices equipped with a touch-sensitive screen "target size of 9.2mm for discrete tasks and targets of 9.6mm for serial tasks should be sufficiently large...without degrading performance and preference". See Touchscreens guideline for references.

***According to the Nordic Cooperation on Disability (1998) the power to press a key should be "between 0.3 and 0.6 Newton". See Computer Hardware guideline for references.

Checklist for Displays
Checklist for Keys
Checklist for Pictograms, Icons and Symbols
Checklist for Pointing Devices
Checklist for Touchscreens