Cash dispensers and automatic teller machines (ATMs) are a common form of public access terminal, and have been in general use for many years. A number of guidelines, in various countries, have attempted to specify the parameters to alleviate the problems of disabled users. However it is only where there is relevant legislation, that these guidelines have been applied in a consistent manner.
Electronic fund transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS) usually requires the customer to check the amount on a visual display and then input a four digit PIN (personal identification number) on a keypad. This has problems for blind people since there is rarely any alternative to the visual display. This is the type of application where a wireless connection to an assistive device may be appropriate.
Over the years there have been many proposals for systems to reduce consumer reliance on cash and cheques, especially for low value purchases (under £25). Smart card technology now offers a secure mechanism at an affordable price, ready to be used for electronic purses. The UK Banking Code defines an electronic purse as "Any card or function of a card which contains real value in the form of electronic money which someone has paid for in advance, and which can be reloaded with further funds and which can be used for a range of purposes". These purses store pre-paid monetary value directly on the smart card. As yet, this is a technological solution searching for a killer application. There are advantages for the banks and retailers from the use of electronic purses, but the consumer has perceived insufficient advantage to justify the costs involved.
- AS 3769 (1990) Automatic teller machines: User access.
- B65.1.1-01 (2001) Barrier-free design for automated banking machines
- CWA 14147 (8 parts) Financial transactional IC card reader (FINREAD).
- Automated Telephone Banking
- Automated Teller Machines
- Best Practice Manual (Part 1). eEurope 2002 Smart Card Charter Trailblazer 8 - User Requirements group, March 2003
- Designing More Usable Information / Transaction Machines
- Electronic Funds Transfer at the Point of Sale
- Guidelines for designers of public access terminals
- Internet Banking
- Making Cash Dispensers Easier to Use
- The use of electronic purses by disabled people. What are the needs?
- Automatic Service Machines: Service for Everybody? The National Swedish Board for Consumer Policies and The Swedish Handicap Institute, 1995.
- Feeney R Access to ATMs. ISBN 0 903976 32 3, 1999.
- Noonan T Accessible E-Commerce in Australia. Blind Citizens Australia, 1999.